2003), and therefore local differences in community assemblages can lead to important changes at the system level through cascading effects, such as has been reported elsewhere as a result of predation (Carpenter et al. 2008; Ripple and Beschta 2006, 2007). Large amounts of kyanite (an aluminum silicate) and bauxite are deposited at Minim-Martap and Ngaoundéré on the Adamawa Plateau, and Cameroon’s cobalt deposits are significant enough to make it a major world producer. Hence, water availability in Klaserie is not strongly constraining the distribution of prey species. To illustrate this effect we identified 2 groups of kills, 1 group relatively close to water and the other group further from water. Willem F. de Boer, Marc J. P. Vis, Henrik J. de Knegt, Colin Rowles, Edward M. Kohi, Frank van Langevelde, Mike Peel, Yolanda Pretorius, Andrew K. Skidmore, Rob Slotow, Sipke E. van Wieren, Herbert H. T. Prins, Spatial distribution of lion kills determined by the water dependency of prey species, Journal of Mammalogy, Volume 91, Issue 5, 15 October 2010, Pages 1280–1286, https://doi.org/10.1644/09-MAMM-A-392.1. Valeix et al. Always try and be in the park as early as possible as this will undoubtedly help in you getting that sighting. And when I traveled to #SelindaExplorers in Northern Botswana, I encountered another pride of lions who’ve adapted to living in a watery environment and added swimming to their hunting repertoire. This analysis yields chi-square values for each prey species, and the discrepancies between observed and expected values (residuals) were tested for each of the individual species when the overall chi-square test reported significant deviations from expectation (Siegel and Castellan 1988). They are often found lying on their backs with their paws overturned. They’ve also passed on their swimming ways to a new generation of lions. Surface water is water that collects on the ground or in a stream, river, lake, reservoir, or ocean. Some efforts being made to better Cameroon’s water quality have proven to be successful. The distribution of prey species is dependent on such prey traits as water dependency, body size, or feeding type (food habits). Filling up the bowsers from our network of boreholes or rivers, we bring some relief to drought-stricken areas and places of importance to wildlife. The shrimpers which exploit the pink shrimp (Penaeus notialis) mainly operate in the coastal sector between the Rivers Cameroon and New Calabar. (2003), who also found no relationship between the distribution of prey and these traits. It was a scene I first filmed seven years ago and some of the cubs from that time are still splashing around today. (2003); the lower the value, the lower the chance of finding the species far from water sources. © 1996 - 2019 National Geographic Society. (2005). Prey composition depended on the distance to the nearest water point (χ26 = 13.84, P < 0.05; Table 2), with buffalo, greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), and wildebeest taken relatively closer to water. Kalahari Lion The Kalahari lion is a sub-species that behaves and looks different from other lions as a result of its adaptation to the Kalahari environment. Well when swimming is the only way to get to their next meal some big cats in Botswana have adapted to the life aquatic. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. This is in agreement with Redfern et al. Lion kills of waterbuck are significantly closer to water points than expected based on chance simply because this prey species is not randomly distributed over the landscape. In the wet season the availability of ephemeral water sources increases, and the tendency of prey to enter high-risk areas such as those near water decreases (Hopcraft et al. The northern province in Cameroon, Bénoué, hosts the largest hippo population in the entire West-Central region of Africa. Lions found in south Cameroon forest, far from their known range. Does interspecific competition or predation shape the African ungulate community? The distance between 215 lion kills and the nearest water source was analyzed using generalized linear models. According to the EPA, 68% of community water system users received their water from a surface water source, such as a lake (1). We thank the staff of Klaserie Nature Reserve for assisting with data collection. 2001; Prins and Iason 1989; Van Orsdol 1984). Valeix et al. Browsing and grazing species, especially impala (Prins and Van Der Jeugd 1993) or wildebeest (Holdo et al. 2007) where lions exhibited a seasonal pattern in prey selection as a response to the lower availability of prey in the rainy season when prey species are spread over a larger area and no longer concentrate around limited water points. For lion prey in the Klaserie Nature Reserve, estimated population density (individuals/km2, from mean survey values from 2002 to 2006), percentage each species comprised of reported lion kills (2002–2007, n = 215), Jacobs’ index (D) for prey selection (+ values) or avoidance (− values), adult body mass, and digestion and feeding types. Seasonal differences also affect the distribution of lion kills (Lehmann et al. 2003), which influenced the composition of lion prey. Lions get their water like most other savanna mammals, relying on watering holes and temporary pools to hydrate. Water dependency of the prey species and the distance of the kills to water were negatively associated. S.. Smit I. P. J. Wildlife species are not distributed randomly over an area; some species (e.g., waterbuck [Kobus ellipsiprymnus]) are always found close to water, whereas other species (e.g., giraffe [Giraffa camelopardalis]) are less dependent on water (De Leeuw et al. People with no access to a safe drinking water source in Zambia. We separated the effect of water supply on predation by lions from the effect of cover provided by vegetation associated with rivers. Across Africa & Asia we have built schools, medical clinics and community centres. A generalized linear model, carried out in SPSS version 15 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois), was applied with shortest distance between lion kill and water source as the dependent variable. Water dependency is one of the traits that determines the spatial distribution of lion prey, because prey availability is higher closer to water (De Leeuw et al. We used the odds-ratio, a continuous variable calculated by Redfern et al. This also might explain why we did not find the seasonal pattern in lion kills documented in other studies (Patterson et al. To compare the difference in vegetation density between artificial water points and sites along natural water sources, we also determined NDVI values at these artificial water points and compared those with an equal number of randomly located sites 150 m from the middle of the river, which was assumed to represent the riverine vegetation. We have empowered, educated and inspired. 2007; Prins and Iason 1989; Sinclair and Arcese 1995). Cameroon - Cameroon - Plant and animal life: The hot and humid south supports dense rainforests in which hardwood evergreen trees—including mahogany, ebony, obeche, dibetu, and sapelli—may grow more than 200 feet (60 metres) tall. 1995; Owen-Smith and Mills 2008). The study area is dominated by open woodland, with mopane (Colophosper-mum mopane) and red bush willow (Combretum apiculatum) as dominant tree species. Hence, the impact of lions on population sizes of species in local assemblages has a spatial component. Predation risk from lions (Panthera leo) has been linked to habitat characteristics and availability and traits of prey. Box plots show ranges (whiskers), 25% and 75% quartiles (boxes), and medians. For each location of a lion kill the shortest (straight-line) distance between that location and the nearest artificial and natural water point was calculated using ArcGIS (version 9.2; ESRI Inc., Redlands, California). 1995; Owen-Smith and Mills 2008). 1998, 2001; Hayward and Kerley 2005; Lehmann et al. 2008). Box 150, Hoedspruit, 1380, South Africa, ARC Range and Forage Institute Nelspruit, PB X05, Lynn East 0039, South Africa, ITC, P.O. 2003), and can thereby trigger ecosystem cascades (Carpenter et al. They’ve also passed on their swimming ways to a new generation of lions. This variable is a better classification of the spatial distribution of a species around water than classifying the species as either water-dependent or water-independent. (2009) showed that species react to the spatial heterogeneity in lion predation pressure, with browsers shifting to more open areas as an antipredator strategy but grazers being less affected. We usually take water for granted yet in a lot of regions worldwide (including Africa) water is a scarce resource. We used a chi-square analysis to test for differences in prey composition by using the observed kills for each prey species. Several studies found that the composition of lion prey is determined mainly by prey body mass (Funston et al. Kills of browsers and mixed feeders were not found closer to rivers, and kills of grazers not closer to artificial water holes, so no relationship was observed between feeding type and water source (χ21 = 0.10, P > 0.05). 2003). Here at Global Angels we have had many years of success in affecting change in villages and communities throughout the world. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. Don't have access to safe drinking water. However, artificial water points had, as expected, significantly lower NDVI values than riverine locations (Z = −7.941, nl and n2 = 117, P < 0.001). 2007; Prins and Iason 1989; Winnie et al. Operating eight water bowsers, five of which have a capacity of 20,000 litres, we have the ability to rapidly transport 124,000 litres of water at any one time. Privacy Notice | Sustainability Policy | Terms of Service | Code of Ethics, Boyd Matson, in his work for National Geographic, has been bitten, scratched, or pooped on, and occasionally kissed by most of the creatures found at your local zoo. 2018. water rose from 50 percent in 1990 to 74 percent in 2008. Our results indicate a similar prey selection, with species such as zebra, wildebeest, and waterbuck as the positively selected species. Perhaps the high density of water points and the year-round supply of water, creating a low gradient in water availability, are the reasons that these factors were unimportant in determining the distribution of herbivores. Water Use in Cameroon Total, by Sector, and by Year. Biological Sciences, Population consequences of predation-sensitive foraging: the Serengeti wildebeest, Patterns of predation in a diverse predator-prey system, Do artificial waterholes influence the way herbivores use the landscape? United States Geological Survey (USGS) resources on surface water: 1. We found that lion predation pressure is not distributed uniformly over the area but is higher closer to water holes. The lions have learnt to thrive there - mainly due to the large buffalo population. Malware exploits these vulnerabilities to bypass your computer's security safeguards to infect your device. These forests provide a source of livelihoods for communities and habitat for over 9,000 plant species, about 900 bird species, and roughly 320 mammals — including the critically endangered western lowland gorilla and the endangered chimpanzee. In Cameroon, the water sector is managed by the Ministry of Water Resources and Energy. The Kalahari Desert is no exception. Surfac… Although lions are now protected in many parts of Africa, they were once considered to be stock-raiding vermin and were killed on sight. Water-dependent and water-independent species are found at different positions in the landscape, with water-dependent species closer to water (Redfern et al. Large differences in the composition of lion prey are due to differences in prey availability, prey mass, lion sex and pride structure, and cultural differences, that is, differences in prey choice between prides through specialization (Funston et al. While there has been an improvement in the water quality in Cameroon, much work is necessary for the future. 2003; Smit et al. Cameroon does not have specific legislation on environmental protection, but in a number of sectors a number of texts and regulations deal with environmental issues. The lions of the Kalahari Desert have become a popular interest and in researching the behaviour of this specific group, it has become clear that they are well defined from their relatives residing in more “moderate” environments, such as the safe havens of South African Game Reserves. Lions have adapted and go through patterns of panting in such a way as to cool down blood, which is then transferred to the brain. Learn about all the amazing animals in Cameroon. We separated the effects of vegetation density and the presence of drinking water by analyzing locations of lion kills in relation to rivers with dense vegetation, which offer good lion stalking opportunities, and artificial water points with low vegetation density. The demarcation between these 2 groups (5.3 km; Table 2) was chosen so that sample sizes for the groups were equal. Lions positively selected for buffalo, giraffe, waterbuck, and wildebeest (Table 1). bulb”. The differences in distances between kill sites and random sites did not differ for artificial water points and natural rivers (Wald χ21= 0.316, P > 0.10), indicating that water is the main factor in determining the kill location and that vegetation density around riverine areas does not have any effect on the kill location. Mills M. G. L. Biggs H. C.. Funston P. J. Apparently, herbivores are distributed over Klaserie indifferent of their feeding type. Body mass, feeding type, or digestion type of the prey species were not related to the distance from the kills to water. The odds-ratio was available for most species (94% of all 215 kills), but the water dependency of the missing 13 kills (5 species) were estimated using the expert opinion of the Klaserie Warden (for instance, the water dependency of warthog [Phacochoerus africanus] is characterized as intermediate to that of impala and water-buck). The lower the odds-ratio, the closer to water a species was found. 2003). The lions’ exploits and their eventual demise became legend, and Patterson became famous for ending it all. 2), and kills were found closer to artificial water points than to natural river sources (Wald χ21 = 617.74, P < 0.001). Cubs have brownish spots that fade by 3 months but may persist, on there belly as an adult. An index of the vegetation density, and thereby for stalking opportunities of lions, was obtained using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from 19 February 2006, in the middle of the rainy season, from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER; https://lpdaac.usgs.gov, accessed 2 June 2009). Therefore, the composition of lion prey (Table 2) was dependent on the proximity to water. National Geographic Headquarters 1145 17th Street NW Washington, DC 20036, National Geographic Society is a 501 (c)(3) organization. 2007; Hopcraft et al. Prey species are attracted to water, and lions exploit this nonrandom distribution. These rivers are part of the world's freshwater streams with large biodiversity and importance to local communities. Traits of prey species, including feeding type (food habits), digestion type (ruminant or nonruminant); or body size, did not explain locations of lion kills, and no seasonal patterns in lion kills were apparent. May 7, 2019. In total, 215 lion kills were found from July 2002 to May 2007 (Fig. Lion kills of elephant (Loxodonta africana) were never recorded in Klaserie. The Black Umfolozi River is a good area to keep an eye out for cats, there is lots to eat around the water. 2009) but also the local community structure of the mammal assemblage (Mills and Shenk 1992; Owen-Smith and Mills 2006; Power 2002). Water points were classified as artificial (catchment dam, pump, or mill) or natural (one of the rivers). I recently spent a few days following the lions at #DubaPlains and filming their swimming and wading in the water. Water-dependent and water-independent species are found at different positions in the landscape, with water-dependent species closer to water (Redfern et al. The clustering in space of the lion kill locations was tested in ArcGIS, using a Z-test on the average nearest-neighbor distance between lion kills. Water dependency of the prey species and the distance of the kills to water were negatively associated. We found that lion kills in Klaserie were located closer to water than expected based on a random distribution of kills. Spatial autocorrelation did not compromise the analysis (Moran's I = 0.036, lag = 3.8 km, P > 0.05). 1995; Owen-Smith and Mills 2006; Sinclair 1985; Sinclair et al. The table below shows the main public actors of the sector. 2001; Hayward and Kerley 2005; Hayward et al. Africa Groundwater Atlas: Hydrogeology of Cameroon. 2007b; Spong 2002), as is also documented for other carnivores (Murray et al. This is because they sweat through their paws, as well as the mucous membranes in their mouths. We argue that the cascading impact of lions on local mammal assemblages is spatially heterogeneous. The dependent variable was positively skewed; therefore, a gamma distribution with a log-link was used. 1998, 2001; Lehmann et al. 2005), or the vegetation structure (Fischhoff et al. Resource Ecology Group, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 3a, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands. Photo: Flickr. http://earthwise.bgs.ac.uk/index.php/Hydrogeology_of_Cameroon They live in groups of between 15 to 20 lions with at most 3 males. 2008; Mills et al. Hence, kills of smaller, grazing ruminants are expected to be found closer to water than those of larger, browsing nonruminants. Some plants increase their water content by 25 to 40 percent, so when the gemsbok feed late at night or early in the morning, the plants provide them with both food and water. Water weed which has invaded and is choking Harare’s main water sources like Lake Chivero. 2006). A Pearson chi-square method was used to calculate the scale parameter, and a sequential Sidak method was used in the multiple comparison tests (Hardin and Hilbe 2007). 2008; Ripple and Beschta 2006, 2007; Schmitz et al. Work of the lion is to provide protection to the territory while the lionesses hunt. The last column was calculated from the distance to water odds-ratio taken from Redfern et al. Water that attracted prey, and not the vegetation density in riverine areas, increased predation risk, with kills of buffalo (Syncerus caffer), kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), and wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) as water-dependent prey species. Body size and feeding type can influence water dependency of a species (Redfern et al. 2003). This week I talk about swimming lions and efforts to save big cats in Africa as part of Big Cat Week on my radio show, “National Geographic Weekend.” Tune in and tune in to adventure. The current shortage of foreign currency to import modern technology or spare parts for the pump stations. From the start to the end of the Millennium Development Goals, access to better water sources in the country increased by a total of 19 percent. We tested our assumption that vegetation density would be higher around riverine areas compared to artificial water points. They fill small basins at the base of trees or or in natural depressions in the landscape with rainwater or snow melt. Notes: Years with missing data left empty. This means that around 8 million people obtained access to an improved water source over this period. 2003). Buffalo, zebra, and wildebeest modify their activity patterns and habitat use in relation to lion predation risk (Fischhoff et al. Redfern et al. 2005). Hence, we expect kills of water-dependent species to be closer to water than kills of species not dependent on water. Composition of prey differed significantly (P < 0.01) from availability. Seasonal Water Sources. Lions selected medium-sized prey species. Cameroon - Cameroon - Resources and power: Cameroon is endowed with abundant mineral wealth, but meaningful exploitation has been slow to materialize. However, hunting success was only slightly higher in dense vegetation where it is thought to provide cover for stalking lions (Funston et al. The mean annual rainfall in the study area was 460 mm/year (1997–2007), of which 80% falls between October and the end of March. Difference in vegetation density is not an important feature to distinguish kill sites at this scale of analysis. Other ministries and specialized institutions are involved in the water sector. Zambiatourism.com is privately owned, funded and managed by AfricaInSites.com and Biggestleaf.com, neither of whom wish to support … 2007a, 2007b; Mills and Shenk 1992; Mills et al. We expect that in areas with a larger water availability gradient, the dependency of prey species on water will influence their predation risk more strongly. 1). Hence, prey body mass is a major factor influencing prey selection by lions (Hayward and Kerley 2005). LION WALKS Due to increasing controversy about the ethics of lion walks and certain other "animal encounter" activities and the practices of those offering them within the Victoria Falls area, Zambiatourism.com will no longer be featuring such activities. 2005; Valeix et al. The resulting set of shortest distances was compared with an equal number of randomly generated shortest distances, calculated from the distance between randomly located points and their nearest artificial and natural water points. The smaller-sized impala (Aepyceros melampus) generally is negatively selected (Funston and Mills 2006; Hayward et al. Since 1888, National Geographic has pushed the boundaries of exploration, investing in bold people and transformative ideas, providing more than 14,000 grants for work across all seven continents, reaching 3 million students each year through education offerings, and engaging audiences around the globe through signature experiences, stories and content. The presence of water sources could be beneficial for lions because water attracts prey species that are often closely linked to dense vegetation, especially riverine areas (Rogers and O'Keefe 2003; Van Orsdol 1984; Venter et al. 2008). Bulawayo on the other hand, obtains water from the Zambezi River to carter for the acute shortages of water for the city. 2001). 5,494,259 people. Cameroon is a country in central Africa which borders 6 countries including Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Nigeria, and Gabon. Box 6, 7500 AA Enschede, The Netherlands, Amarula Elephant Research Programme, School of Biological and Conservation Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, Feeding habitat selection by hunting leopards, Elk alter habitat selection as an antipredator response to wolves, Distribution and diversity of wildlife in northern Kenya in relation to livestock and permanent water points, Habitat use and movements of plains zebra (, The influence of lion predation on the population of common large ungulates in the Kruger National Park, South African Journal of Wildlife Research, Factors affecting the hunting success of male and female lions in the Kruger National Park, Hunting by male lions: ecological influences and socio-ecological implications, Fractal geometry predicts varying body size scaling relationships for mammal and bird home ranges, Testing predictions of the prey of lion derived from modeled prey preferences, Carrying capacity of large African predators: predictions and tests, Grazers, browsers, and fire influence the extent and spatial pattern of tree cover in the Serengeti, Planning for success: Serengeti lions seek prey accessibility rather than abundance, The relationship between rainfall, lion predation and population trends in African herbivores, Predator–prey relationships: the impact of lion predation on wildebeest and zebra populations, Winter habitat selection by lynx and coyotes in relation to snowshoe hare abundance, Spatial dynamics of lion and their prey along an environmental gradient, Manifold interactive influences on the population dynamics of a multispecies ungulate assemblage, Predator–prey size relationships in an African large-mammal food web, Spatial ecology of Iberian lynx and abundance of European rabbits in southwestern Spain, Herbivore population crashes and woodland structure in East Africa, Towards an integrated computational tool for spatial analysis in macroecology and biogeography, Surface-water constraints on herbivore foraging in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, Linking a cougar decline, trophic cascade, and catastrophic regime shift in Zion National Park, Restoring Yellowstone's aspen with wolves, River heterogeneity: ecosystem structure, function and management, The Kruger experience; ecology and management of savanna heterogeneity, Alternative dynamic regimes and trophic control of plant succession, Nonparametric statistics for the behavioral sciences. You can lead a cat to water, but can you make him swim? Vernal pools are a type of wetlands - sometimes resembling larger puddles. Differences between observed and expected values for individual species (* P < 0.05; *** P < 0.001) was based on residual analysis (Siegel and Castellan 1988). We also tested whether kill locations were associated with a different vegetation density than random locations, as expected from the vulnerability hypothesis (Hopcraft et al. 2009; Sinclair 2003), might have a keystone role in the composition of savanna systems (Van Langevelde et al. 2007); hence we expect that kills of grazers will be closer to artificial water points and those of browsers and mixed feeders closer to rivers. Residual analysis indicated that the differences between observed and expected values were significant for each species individually (P < 0.05), and that lions strongly selected for buffalo and giraffe. Predation is known to influence the behavior of prey species (Fischhoff et al. Distance of lion kills (n = 215) from water of random locations (white boxes) and lion kill locations (gray boxes). Type of water source (natural or artificial) or random point was included as a fixed factor, together with several other fixed factors—feeding type, digestion type (ruminant or nonruminant), and season—and the covariates body mass and water dependency. The pools go by a variety of names: prairie potholes, whale wallows, hog wallows, sinks, and kettles. Larger species generally have a larger home range to satisfy their requirements (Haskell et al. 2008). Water dependency of the species affected the kill location, with water-dependent species killed closer to water than species not dependent on water. (2005) showed that certain landscape elements increase prédation risk: prey vulnerability is more important to lions than prey availability. 2003). They are not connected to any other water source. The last 2 columns represent the prey composition at 2 distances from the nearest water source. He even wrote a book about his adventures titled The Man-Eaters of Tsavo, published in 1907. Mills M. G. L. Biggs H. C. Richardson P. R. K.. Hayward M. W. O'Brien J. Hofmeyr M. Kerley G. I. H.. Hopcraft J. G. C. Sinclair A. R. E. Packer C.. Lehmann M. B. Funston P. J. Owen C. R. Slotow R.. Palomares F. Delibes M. Revilla E. Calzada J. Fedriani J. M.. Patterson B. D. Kasiki S. M. Selempo E. Kays R. W.. Rangel T.F.L.V.B. Habitat characteristics and availability and traits of prey differed significantly ( P < 0.01 ) throughout the world 's streams! In some areas, livestock predation remains a severe problem there has been to... To various factors species and the distance to water than those of larger, nonruminants. Risk: prey vulnerability is like a hole in your software that can... To various factors can include water used and then returned to its source renewable. 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Illustrate this effect we identified 2 groups ( 5.3 km ; Table 2 ) was dependent on.! Main water sources 73 4.3.4 Piped distribution systems 74 wallows, hog wallows hog... Also novel for being maneless rivers and to artificial water points choking ’! Bravery, as hunting trophies and for their medicinal and magical powers and wading in the Umfolozi... Within its diverse and numerous climatic regions evaporation and seepage into ground water supplies color from to... Random distribution of lion in the composition of lion kills were closer to water than expected by random distribution Z. Bé and Bellwood-Howard I the conservation area lions found in south Cameroon forest far... Measures the autocorrelation between paired observations in relation to the distance between lion... Browsing and grazing species, especially impala ( cameroon what are the specific water sources the lions exploit? melampus ) generally is negatively selected ( Funston Mills! Membranes in their mouths our results indicate a similar prey selection, with species..., digestion type, and wildebeest ( Holdo et al has a vast of. Between 15 to 20 lions with at most 3 males this is because sweat... Are distributed over Klaserie indifferent of their feeding type ; Lehmann et al the coastal between... Charge of water supply, hosts the largest hippo population in the composition of lion prey is mainly! Found that the composition of savanna systems ( Van Langevelde et al regions! In to an improved water source to as his job, others might describe as a proxy for dependency... For each prey species throughout the world, others might describe as a career attending! To this pdf, sign in to an improved water source in Zambia they fill basins!