Hostages were taken. Carthage was forbidden to possess war elephants and its fleet was restricted to 10 warships. [78] A rushed Carthaginian attack in late 218 BC was beaten off at the Battle of Cissa. [81], The Carthaginians captured the chief city of the hostile Taurini (in the area of modern Turin) and their army routed the cavalry and light infantry of the Romans at the Battle of Ticinus in late November. ; August – Hannibal conquered Catalonia. Capua had defected to Hannibal after the Battle of Cannae in 216 BC. When Hamilcar Barca's son Hannibal took (219) the Spanish city of Saguntum (present-day Sagunto), a Roman ally, Rome declared war. [118], During 216 BC the Macedonian king, Philip V, pledged his support to Hannibal[119] – thus initiating the First Macedonian War against Rome in 215 BC. It entered Gaul and took an inland route, to avoid the Roman allies to the south. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. [140] Mago was also recalled; he died of wounds on the voyage and some of his ships were intercepted by the Romans,[140] but 12,000 of his troops reached Carthage. Hasdrubal’s force at the Metaurus probably numbered some 30,000 men, that of the Romans not less than 40,000 (Kromayer-Veith, Antike Schlachtfelder, üi. After great tension within the city government, culminating in the assassination of the supporters of Carthage, Hannibal laid siege to the city of Saguntum in 219 BC. [note 2][9][19] Other sources include coins, inscriptions, archaeological evidence and empirical evidence from reconstructions. While the First Punic War had been fought largely over control of Sicily, the Second Punic War involved confrontations in Spain, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, and North Africa.The Carthaginians were led by Hannibal, one of the most gifted commanders in history, but the … 490).The copious emission of Bruttian gold, silver and bronze coinage in the late third century is to be assigned to Hannibal’s presence in Bruttium; he used it to finance the Punic war-effort throughout southern Italy. This chronology includes references to some of the other fronts on which Rome was fighting at the same time and the importation of the stone Great Mother from Asia Minor that Rome brought home to help her reverse the trend and win the war. [87][96], News of the defeat caused a panic in Rome. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. For the next decade the war in southern Italy continued, with Roman armies slowly recapturing most of the Italian cities that had joined Carthage. [20], Most male Roman citizens were eligible for military service and would serve as infantry, with a better-off minority providing a cavalry component. [133], In 210 the Carthaginians caught the Romans off guard during their siege of Herdonia and lifted the siege after a pitched battle in which the Romans lost 13,000 men from their army of 20,000. The Second Punic War brought about the downfall of the established balance of power of the ancient world and Rome rose to become the supreme power in the Mediterranean region for the coming 600 years. [153], In 213 BC Syphax, a powerful Numidian king in North Africa, declared for Rome. The Carthaginian council offered terms of surrender but reneged at the last minute, pinning its hopes on one last battle. For 17 years the two states struggled for supremacy, primarily in Italy and Iberia, but also on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia and, towards the end of the war, in North Africa. The two sides' infantry fought inconclusively until the Roman cavalry returned and attacked the Carthaginian rear. [8][9][10], The accuracy of Polybius's account has been much debated over the past 150 years, but the modern consensus is to accept it largely at face value, and the details of the war in modern sources are largely based on interpretations of Polybius's account. Eventually, however, under the leadership of Hamilcar Barca, his son Hannibal, and his son-in-law Hasdrubal, Carthage acquired a new base in Spain, whence they could renew the war against Rome. Due to these defeats, Syphax was ousted as the Numidian king and replaced by one of his sons, Masinissa — who was an ally of Rome. Carthage was prohibited from waging war outside Africa, and in Africa only with Rome's express permission. ... See Battle of Capua (211 BC) Battle of Carmona. 0 % “A Desperate Struggle”: The Second Battle of Capua 211 BC Carthaginians vs Romans . *218 BC **Battle of Lilybaeum A Roman fleet of 20 quinqueremes defeated a Carthaginian fleet of … Wikipedia. Scipio then invaded Carthaginian Africa in 204, compelling the Carthaginian Senate to recall Hannibal's army from Italy. If either commander felt at a disadvantage, they might might march off without engaging. [69], In 218 BC there was some naval skirmishing in the waters around Sicily. It soon received Gallic and Ligurian reinforcements. The Roman general Publius Scipio won a decisive battle at Ilipa in 206 and forced the Carthaginians out of Spain. Posted in Second Punic War (218-202 BC) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Rating 0.00 (0 Votes) Victory Results: 0 %. He staged a march towards Rome, hoping in to compel the Romans to abandon the siege in order to defend their home city. Suggested timing: 2 hour. [45], The Roman Republic had been aggressively expanding in the southern Italian mainland for a century[46] and had conquered peninsular Italy south of the Arno River by 272 BC, when the Greek cities of southern Italy (Magna Graecia) submitted after the conclusion of the Pyrrhic War. Rather than attack Rome directly, he marched on Capua, the second largest town in Italy, hoping to incite the populace to rebel. The Second Punic War (218–201 BC) was the second of three wars fought between Carthage and Rome, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the 3rd century BC. Second Punic War. The First Battle of Capua was fought in 212 BC between Hannibal and two Roman consular armies. Corrections? Both battles ended in complete defeat for the Romans, as Hasdrubal had bribed the Romans' mercenaries to desert. Hannibal was left largely free to ravage Apulia for the next year. [24][25], Carthaginian citizens only served in their army if there was a direct threat to the city. Hannibal maintained his position in southern Italy until 203, when he was ordered to return to Africa. S67, p. 49. [142], Hasdrubal received orders from Carthage to move into Italy and join up with Hannibal in order to put pressure on the Romans in their homeland. In 211 BC Hannibal attempted to lure the Romans into a pitched battle, but was unsuccessful; and was also unable to lift the siege by assaulting the besiegers' defences. [175][176], Second war between Rome and Carthage, 218 to 201 BC. The Second Punic War (aka The Hannibalic War) was fought between Carthage and Rome between 218 and 201 BCE. After the Carthaginians failed to resupply the city, Syracuse fell in the autumn of 212 BC; Archimedes was killed by a Roman soldier. Rome, exhausted by war, nevertheless raised and dispatched an army to check Hasdrubal. A fresh Roman army attacked the main Carthaginian stronghold on the island, Agrigentum, in 210 BC and the city was betrayed to the Romans by a discontented Carthaginian officer. [52] The immediate cause of the war was the issue of control of the independent Sicilian city state of Messana (modern Messina). [73] An army had previously been created by the Romans to campaign in Iberia, but the Roman Senate detached one Roman and one allied legion from it to send to north Italy. During the long mainland campaign, fighting had continued as well on Sardinia and Sicily, which had become Rome’s chief sources of food. Battle of the Silarus Part of the Second Punic War Battles second punic war.png Date 212 BC Location near Silarus River (modern Sele River), Italy Result Carthaginian victory-Destruction of Roman force Belligerents Carthage standard.svg Carthage Spqrstone.jpg Roman Republic Commanders and leaders Hannibal Marcus Centenius Penula † Strength 25,000-30,000 16,000 Casualties and losses moderate … Æ Biunx (25mm, 18.20 g). Fought across the entire Western … It is described by Polybius at 9.4-7, and by Livy at 26.4-6. [165], Rome's African ally, King Masinissa of Numidia, exploited the prohibition on Carthage waging war to repeatedly raid and seize Carthaginian territory with impunity. The Second Punic War broke out in B.C. [17][14], Other, later, ancient histories of the war exist, although often in fragmentary or summary form. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). [142] In this battle, he used his cavalry superiority to attempt to clear the field while attempting to envelop the enemy on both sides with his infantry. Before their preparations were complete, Hannibal…, During the decades between the wars, the Carthaginians had been busy building up an empire in Spain which would help to compensate for the loss of Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica. The Sec­ond Punic War (Spring 218 to 201 BC), also re­ferred to as The Han­ni­balic War and by the Ro­mans the War Against Hannibal, was the sec­ond of three wars be­tween Carthage and the Roman Re­pub­lic, with the par­tic­i­pa­tion of Greek poli­ties and Nu­mid­ian and Iber­ian forces on both sides. The Second Punic War, also referred to as The Hannibalic War, (by the Romans) The War Against Hannibal, or "The Carthaginian War", lasted from 218 to 201 BC [2] and involved combatants in the western and eastern Mediterranean.This was the second major war between Carthage and the Roman Republic, with the crucial participation of Numidian-Berber armies and tribes on both sides. Updates? Hiero II. Campania, Capua. After immense material and human losses on both sides … While the First Punic War had been fought largely over control of Sicily, the Second Punic War involved confrontations in Spain, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, and North Africa. The Second Battle of Capua was fought in 211 BC, when the Romans besieged Capua. [58] After the First Punic War, Carthaginian possessions in Iberia (modern Spain and Portugal) were limited to a handful of prosperous coastal cities in the south. https://www.britannica.com/event/Second-Punic-War, Military History Encyclopedia on the Web - Second Punic War. Hasdrubal demurred, arguing that Carthaginian authority over the Iberian tribes was too fragile and the Roman forces in the area too strong for him to execute the planned movement. The Romans retreated to their coastal stronghold north of the Ebro, from which the Carthaginians again failed to expel them. Two of the major Samnite tribes also joined the Carthaginian cause. Hannibal negotiated a treaty whereby Syracuse came over to Carthage, at the price of making the whole of Sicily a Syracusan possession. Meanwhile, in Spain, Roman forces maintained pressure on Carthaginian strongholds. The First Punic War (264-241 BCE) Celtic and Illyrian Wars (241-219 BCE) The Second Punic War: Hannibal (218-211 BCE) The Second Punic War: Scipio (210-201 BCE) Macedonia and the Seleucid Empire (201-188 BCE) Liguria, Spain and the great Greek quagmire (187-172 BCE) Masters of the Mediterranean (171-151 BCE) The Third Punic War (150-146 BCE) Hannibal temporarily managed to raise the siege of Capua. The Carthaginians accepted Scipio’s terms for peace: Carthage was forced to pay an indemnity and surrender its navy, and Spain and the Mediterranean islands were ceded to Rome. [100] In the spring of 216 BC Hannibal seized the large supply depot at Cannae on the Apulian plain. [113] A second force, under Hannibal's youngest brother Mago, was meant to land in Italy in 215 BC but was diverted to Iberia after a major Carthaginian defeat there. However, Publius Cornelius Scipio had to stay in the northern Italy due to the rebel of Gauls. Second Punic War - Second Punic War Battles. Meanwhile, the Carthaginian army was crippled by plague. Without the expected reinforcement the Carthaginians were compelled to evacuate allied towns in Italy and withdraw to Bruttium. [94] The Carthaginians continued their march through Etruria, then Umbria, to the Adriatic coast, then marched south into Apulia,[95] in the hope of winning over some of the ethnic Greek and Italic city states of southern Italy. ; August – Hannibal conquered Catalonia. [152] Later the same year a mutiny broke out among Roman troops, which initially attracted support from Iberian leaders, disappointed that Roman forces had remained in the peninsula after the expulsion of the Carthaginians, but it was effectively put down by Scipio. This is an incomplete list of battles of the Second Punic War, showing the battles on the Italian peninsula and some in Africa, in Sicily and Hispania.. 218 BC Battle of Lilybaeum – A Roman fleet of 20 quinqueremes defeated a Carthaginian fleet of 35 galleys. [137], After Publius Cornelius Scipio invaded the Carthaginian homeland in 204 BC, defeating the Carthaginians in two major battles and winning the allegiance of the Numidian kingdoms of North Africa, Hannibal and the remnants of his army were recalled. In 205 BC a last attempt was made by Mago to recapture New Carthage when the Roman occupiers were shaken by another mutiny and an Iberian uprising, but he was repulsed. This new Carthaginian invasion was defeated at the Battle of the Metaurus. Second Punic War: Second Period, From The Revolt Of Capua To The Battle Of The Metaurus - b.C. In the years after the First… In 217 Hannibal, reinforced by Gallic tribesmen, marched south. Home; Second Punic War > Second Punic War Battles. [64] At some time during the next six years Rome made a separate agreement with the city of Saguntum, which was situated well south of the Ebro. [138] They sailed from Croton[139] and landed at Carthage with 15,000–20,000 experienced veterans. That year, Hannibal surprised the Romans by marching his army overland from Iberia, through Gaul and over the Alps to Cisalpine Gaul (modern northern Italy). [78][142] In 217 BC 40 Carthaginian and Iberian warships were beaten by 55 Roman and Massalian vessels at the Battle of Ebro River, with 29 Carthaginian ships lost. The Romans took drastic steps to raise new legions: enrolling slaves, criminals and those who did not meet the usual property qualification and so vastly increasing the number of men they had under arms. [78] The Roman commanders captured Saguntum in 212 BC and in 211 BC hired 20,000 Celtiberian mercenaries to reinforce their army. The remaining Carthaginian-controlled towns then surrendered or were taken through force or treachery[126][127] and the Sicilian grain supply to Rome and its armies was resumed. The massed Carthaginian army, led by Hannibal, was defeated at Zama. 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