The contributing factors for periodontal gum disease are either local or systemic. Chapter 5 , Local adaptive immunity reacts to produce cytokines, ... modifying the cytokine milieu and possibly contributing to existing pathological mechanisms. Rather than a single disease entity, periodontal disease is a combination of multiple disease processes that share a common clinical manifestation. Bleeding and swollen gums are often early signs of your gums being infected with bacteria. Fig 4-1b Dental examination and periodontal screening using the Basic Periodontal Examination (BPE) for children, adolescents and young adults. Predisposing factors include psychological stress, sleep deprivation, poor oral hygiene, smoking, immunosuppression and/or malnutrition. 6: Non-plaque-induced Periodontal Diseases I: Gingival Lesions, 7: Non-plaque-induced Periodontal Diseases II: Periodontal Lesions, Periodontal Management of Children Adolescents and Young Adults. This paper aims to review the evidence on the potential roles of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors associated with periodontal disease. Hormonal Changes - Pregnancy, puberty and chronic stress can cause changes to the normal hormone levels. The No. ... 460- 37. Local contributing factors & Systemic factors associated with periodontal diseases CASE 1 2. However a lack of orthodontic treatment does not seem to have much effect on periodontal diseases later in life. Modifiable risk factors, such as tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption, poor diet and nutrition, obesity, psychological stress and insufficient personal/oral hygiene, are important and these principal risk factors for periodontal disease are shared by other chronic diseases. Risk Factors of Periodontal Disease: Review of the Literature Yousef A. AlJehani Dental Health Department, Colleg e of Applied Medical Sciences, K ing Saud University, P .O. 1) If you smoke or use tobacco products you are more likely get periodontal disease at an early age. Fraenal attachments. Diabetes- Uncontrolled diabetics are more susceptible to periodontal disease and experience more damage when gum disease is present. 1) If you smoke or use tobacco products you are more likely get periodontal disease at an early age. The term calculus is Latin for pebble or stone. Local Contributory Factors for Periodontal Disease. Having read this chapter, the practitioner should understand the key stages of the periodontal examination of children, adolescents and young adults and be able to identify local periodontal risk factors pertinent to these patients. Find out information about periodontal, local factors of disease. factors implies a direct increase in the probability of the disease occurring. The routine dental examination (Fig 4-1a) of children, adolescents and young adults should include the following: dental charting of teeth present, restorations, cavities, etc. Low income population, ethnic minorities and the elderly show the higher incidence of gum disease, mainly due to lack of access to dental health care and dental insurance. Stress also lowers our immune system’s ability to fight infection. Smoking also dries out the mouth reducing saliva flow, making the mouth less self-cleansing. The cause includes both local and systemic factors. The contributing factors for periodontal disease are either local or systemic. M-TH: 8AM - 5PM Identify how local contributing factors increase the risk for developing a periodontal disease. Free consultation Free Call 1-800-693-4186 (USA) 0-808-189-1244 (UK) – dentiste@propdental.es The local factors include dental plaque and ... Risk factors for periodontal disease Mehta 2 ... disparities are contributing to the oral health inequities. However, some factors can affect the progress of the disease. Restorative material 4. … Local trauma. ingival inflammation is one of the most common periodontal findings. A relationship has also been found between ethnicity and subgingival calculus deposits in adolescents with deposits more prevalent in young Asian patients. Name three local contributing factors for the development of periodontal from CIS 500 at Strayer University Fixed and removable orthodontic appliances are commonly worn by children and adolescents and considerable effort is required by the patient to maintain a clean mouth (Fig 4-4). Restorative dentistry procedure 6. Dental calculus is considered the most important local contributing factor but is not the cause of the disease. Sites with extensive proximal caries have been associated with bone loss and restoration of such sites has been associated with bony infill. Local Risk Factors . Other factors increasing the risk of developing periodontal disease: The prefix “peri” means around while “odontal” means teeth. Systemic factors can have a profound effect on the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and treatment of periodontal infections. Introduction In most of the epidemiological studies , we seek to establish some sort of causal relationship between a characteristic , behaviour or exposure and the manifestation of a particular disease. Three types of causations are generally identified: Sufficient … Learn faster with spaced repetition. Prominent pathologists interpreted the histopathology in various ways and produced somewhat divergent theories on the nature and causes of periodontitis (see Loe in this volume). Calculus. Author information: (1)Department of Periodontics, UMDNJ … is associated most frequently with sites that are adjacent to a salivary source such as … Start studying Ch.16 - Local Factors Contributing to Periodontal DIsease. Among the most common are: heredity, smoking, diabetes, stress, medication, nutrition, poor oral hygiene, faulty dentistry, hormonal variations, immunocompromise, connective tissue diseases, and previous history of active perio disease. For specific diseases, see under the specific name, as addison's disease. Periodontal disease is considered a disease of the poor. This is often times the starting point for many women to develop periodontal disease. [MUSIC] Hello. Introduction. The local factors include dental plaque and ... disparities are contributing to the oral health inequities. Chang KM(1), Ryan ME, Golub LM, Ramamurthy NS, McNamara TF. Those include the periodontal ligament, alveolar bone and the cementum covering the root and the gums. Factitious Disease- patients may persistently gouge or scratch their gingiva with their fingernails or other devices, resulting in exposure of root surface Food impaction is one of the more common local factors that many contribute to initiation and progression of inflammatory periodontal disease Subgingival Calculus Supragingival Calculus derived from GCF & exudates +s for calcium, magnesium, fluoride forms in rings/ledges crystals: hydroxyapatite, brushite, whitlockite Iatrogenic Factors crystals form in matrix, surface of bacteria, then calcify the bacteria Root CH. three primary mechanisms by which local factors can increase the risk of developing periodontal disease or increase the severity of existing periodontal disease. The No. Impairment of systemic immune response, increased production by adipose tissue of humoral factors (adipokines) and attenuation of macrophage infiltration and activation may contribute to the pathogensis of periodontal diseases in patients with obesity. The contributing factors for periodontal disease are either local or systemic. It has been shown that subgingival calculus is related to gingival inflammation and attachment loss in adolescents (Fig 4-2). impairment of the normal state or functioning of the body as a whole or of any of its parts. Original articles that reported on the risk factors for periodontal disease were included. behavioral factors and periodontal dis.pdf ... quality and periodontitis could be related to the local . Plaque or bacteria are the primary causes of periodontal diseases. Uncontrolled diabetics find it more difficult to control their diabetes if they are suffering from periodontal disease. I GINGIVAL DISEASE A- Dental plaque-induced gingival diseases 1 Gingivitis associated with dental plaque only a) without other local contributing factors Periodontal disease cannot occur without the presence of bacteria. Local Risk Factors for Periodontal Diseases. Local risk factors can increase the risk of periodontal disease development and progression principally by acting as plaque retention factors. Local risk factors can increase the risk of periodontal disease development and progression principally by acting as plaque retention factors. Sources . Systemic risk factors for periodontal disease are those conditions that affect most, if not all, tissues of the body. Direct fraenal pull has been described as an aetiological factor in gingival recession, but this is unlikely to be a common contributing factor. Contributing Factors to Periodontal Disease. With further caries prevention measures, there should be fewer restorations impacting on the gingival tissues. Smoking- Smokers are more susceptible to periodontal disease for a variety of reasons. They pertain to physical structures or mechanical habitat that promote plaque accumulation and make plaque removal more difficult. In its early stage, called gingivitis, the gums become swollen, red, and may bleed. If your parents lost their teeth as adults, you should check and see if you’re developing a problem. Important issues to consider include: access to interdental cleaning is diminished and plaque is more likely to accumulate, gingivitis commonly occurs after placement of fixed orthodontic appliances and enamel decalcification can occur around bonded attachments, teeth with bands are harder to access for cleaning and bands extending to the gingival tissues increase the likelihood of plaque retention and gingivitis, if oral hygiene is good then the deleterious effects are minimal, coronal attachment loss can occur during orthodontic appliance therapy and can range from an annual loss of 0.05–0.3mm, apical root resorption is also a common consequence of orthodontic treatment that results in a reduced length of root (Fig 4-5) supported by bone even though no coronal (plaque-induced) alveolar bone loss has occurred in these circumstances, direct trauma from components of orthodontic appliances can cause local injury to the soft tissues, chronic trauma may lead to gingival overgrowth or a fibrous epulis may develop (Fig 4-6), if teeth are orthodontically moved within alveolar bone there is generally little risk of soft tissue recession, orthodontic tooth movements associated with excessive proclination of lower incisors and arch expansion do carry an increased risk of gingival recession. Only bacteria is … Local factors should be identified when carrying out a thorough dental examination of the patient and their removal or modification where possible should be included in the patient’s management. Fig 4-1a Stages in periodontal patient management: examination. Fig 4-2 Subgingival calculus in association with loss of attachment on extracted tooth. Chang KM(1), Ryan ME, Golub LM, Ramamurthy NS, McNamara TF. Orthodontic appliances. Nevertheless, dental caries is still a common condition, particularly in areas of social deprivation. A severe overbite can cause direct trauma to the upper palatal or lower labial gingival tissues which may be associated with gingival recession. Anatomical features. Classification of periodontal disease (adapted from Armitage GC. Local Factors in Periodontal Disease Sigurd Ramfjord, L.D.S., M.S., Ph.D. Assistant professor of dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. School of Dentistry University of Michigan Ann Arbor Mich 1. Design of the removable partial denture 5. See also illness, mal, sickness, and syndrome. Diabetes and smoking are the biggest risk factors for periodontal disease, increasing the occurrence, severity, and speed of onset and progression. ... considered most important local contributing factor . Predisposing Factors: The contributing factors for periodontal gum disease are either local or systemic. Advanced disease features include pus and exudates. Malocclusion or crowding/imbrication. Ann Periodontol 1999;4:1 -6.) If a preexisting periodontal infection exists and a woman gets pregnant, the infection is likely to accelerate. Subgingival Calculus Supragingival Calculus derived from GCF & exudates +s for calcium, magnesium, fluoride forms in rings/ledges crystals: hydroxyapatite, brushite, whitlockite Iatrogenic Factors crystals form in matrix, surface of bacteria, then calcify the bacteria Root Risk Factors Associated with Periodontal Disease Dr. Samjhana Kashaju Joshi Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. It was found that the prevalence of gingival bleeding and loss of attachment of = 4 mm increased with the decrease in Citing articles. Clinical Significance of Calculus. Citing articles cannot be displayed at this time. Local and systemic factors in periodontal disease increase matrix-degrading enzyme activities in rat gingiva: effect of micocycline therapy. They are in contrast to the local risk factors described in Chapters 10 and 14 that influence periodontal tissues at the tooth or site level. Periodontal disease, also known as gum disease, is a set of inflammatory conditions affecting the tissues surrounding the teeth. @article{Ramfjord1952LocalFI, title={Local factors in periodontal disease. T. Lite, Mouth breathing: a contributing factor in the etiology of gingival irritation J. D. Med. Local risk factors can increase the risk of development and progression of periodontal disease by acting as plaque retention factors. the role of local factors in periodontal disease at dif- ferent times. Smoking causes stain to develop on teeth making the accumulation of plaque easier. Study Local Contributing Factors to Periodontal Disease flashcards from Rodwan Halimi's University of melbourne class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. These factors should be investigated during a thorough dental examination of the patient (Box 4-1). Calculus (supra- and subgingival) Restorations. RISK FACTORS IN PERIODONTAL DISEASES. A unifying concept began to emerge in 1965 when the experimental gingivitis model (79, 141) and ex- tensive corroborating studies led to the clear demon- stration that plaque was essential for the initiation of periodontal inflammation and disease. Predisposing factors are local factors found in the mouth. Socioeconomic Factors. The local factors include pre-existing disease as evidenced by deep probing depths and plaque retention areas associated with defective restorations. Most important is that chronic tobacco use is known to lower your immune system’s ability to fight off infection. It was found that the prevalence of gingival bleeding and loss ... Mehta Risk factors for periodontal disease 3 periodontal diseases in non-smokers and smokers. These can often further complicate a periodontal problem. sociated with periodontal disease for many years and, beginning in the late 1800s, various peri- odontologists and microbiologists contended that parasites, protozoa, streptococci, spirochetes and certain black-pigmented anaerobes were responsible for periodontal disease. Chp 5: Local Contributory Factors for Periodontal Diseases (Note to self:…: Chp 5: Local Contributory Factors for Periodontal Diseases (Note to self: all are considered secondary. -faulty dental restorations. 1 systemic condition adversely affected by periodontal disease is also diabetes. Explanation of periodontal, local factors of disease Pregnant women are more susceptible to periodontal infection due to hormone changes. Systemic risk factors and risk indicators for periodontal disease • Systemic risk factors include smoking, diabetes mellitus, race, genetic factors, male gender, polymorphonuclear (PMN) functional abnormalities, low economic status, low educational level, acquired systemic infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and severe malnutrition ( Table 11.1 ). Risk factors in periodontal diseases 1. The presence of these vari- Current concept in periodontal diseases ... in which direct and indirect dynamics as well as innate, endogenous and exogenous factors are involved. They pertain to physical structures or mechanical habitat that promote plaque accumulation and make plaque removal more difficult. 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